Corporate Social Responsibility: A Review of Literature and an Empirical Study


  • Bharat Chavan Patil
  • Dr. Safia Farooqui



Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a buzzword worldwide. Today many organizations are facing challenge of integration of CSR in business. Stakeholders expect some more from businesses organization than merely pursuing growth and profitability. In the year 1946, the Fortune released a story that said the owners of businesses were answerable to the outcomes of their deeds beyond a much wider scope than their bottom-line figures. This is the time when the term CSR was given so much focus. More than Ninety percent of the owners who read this, agreed to it. Bowen (1953) and Carroll (1999) have also highlighted in their research that the question is, as owners of businesses what kind of rational accountability do they have to presuppose towards the society at large? It was also defined by Bowen that, owners are expected to practice those strategies, resolutions and deeds that put them in an advantageous position and align their goals to all those important purposes which society holds.
Social Responsibility has also gained popularity in academics as well as practical propositions since it has been found that more than ninety percent of the top 500 fortune companies portrayed CSR as a very important goal and vigorously endorse their socially responsible programmes in their annual reports. As per the Legislative bill passed by the Indian Government, all topnotch organizations are obliged to contribute at least 2 percent of their proceeds to Social responsible activities. The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is old in India since many years. It arose from the 'Vedic period' when history was not recorded in India. In those days Kings had a limitation towards society and merchants displayed their own small business responsibility by building places of worship, education, inns and wells.