The Evolution of the Chernozems in the Central Part of Russia and their Complex Analysis in Modern Conditions


  • Dmitry Ivanovich Shcheglov



An increasing anthropogenic impact on soils leads to qualitative and quantitative changes in chernozems, the richest soils on Earth. In this regard, the understanding of modern soil-forming processes is undoubtedly relevant because it will allow predicting the future state of not only soils, but also nature as a whole. The methodology for studying the evolution of chernozems is based on a process-factor analysis of genetically conjugated and agrogenic series of chernozems of different taxonomic levels. The objects of the study were system complexes of soil series, including subtypes of virgin, arable, and irrigated chernozems in the central regions of Russia. The data obtained made it possible to identify patterns of variation in the composition and properties of virgin chernozems in a genetically conjugated series at a subtype level and in the series virgin land – arable land – irrigated arable land; we also detected the processes and factors that determine the nature and direction of changes in the composition and properties of chernozems in the studied series and determined the direction of anthropogenic evolution of chernozems. The main provisions of the work conceptually develop the theory of the chernozem-forming process and serve as a theoretical basis for the development of models for the formation of the chernozem profile. Established quantitative and qualitative indicators of humus profiles of chernozems are important diagnostic features in the classification of these soils. The nature and direction of the chernozem evolution disclosed in the work can serve as the basis for long-term forecasting of the state of these soils and the development of a set of measures for their rational use and protection.’’