SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES: INNOVATION ECOSYSTEMS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SMART CITIES – CASE STUDY IN THE UNITED STATES, CHINA AND SWEDEN
With the exponential population growth in urban areas over the last three decades, many problems appeared in urban centers. Through the development of new technologies, it is possible to create innovative solutions to the issues faced by society. From this idea, the concept of Smart Cities was created. In order for this concept to prosper, the support to innovation is imperative. Countries dedicated to Smart Cities projects invest in the creation of ecosystems which integrates the players of the so called triple helix (university-government-business) and elaborate key strategies to create the conditions in which they may operate. Thus creating government incentives so businesses may embrace large quantities of knowledge and ideas produced inside the universities, working in new solutions to challenges in environment, health, mobility, energy efficiency, infrastructure, social innovation, governance, and innovation ecosystem. This article is centered in such context. The descriptive and exploratory research is based on the case study of three economically distinct countries: China – in the process of transforming its innovation plan -; United States – as the leader and global reference in science and technology – and Sweden – with its project of science, technology and innovation already consolidated. Base on the science and innovation policy of these three countries, a structuring was carried out in order to comprehend their operation towards the smart cities concept. Hence, benchmark practices for the issues were mapped allowing its application as a model to Brazil. Upon the analysis, a strategy oriented towards the construction of Brazilian smart cities was created.