Isolated Microorganisms of Amazon Aquatic Environments Producers of Hydrolases of Industrial and Biotechnological Interest
Enzymes are biological catalysts responsible for the conduction of biochemical reactions fundamental to the metabolism and homeostatic balance of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. There is a growing demand for biological catalysts rather than chemical catalysts for use in industrial production processes, given the high degree of specificity, better reaction yields and lower final cost, and also because of their low toxicity. The objective of this study was to conduct a targeted search for the production of hydrolases - amylases, proteases, lipases and cellulases, by microbial isolates from aquatic environments in the vicinity of the Coari - AM Petroleum Province. Culture media containing specific substrates were used which stimulated the expression of the target enzymes. The results were obtained by reading the degradation halos around the microbial colonies grown in plates. The Enzymatic Indices (EI) were established by measuring the mean diameter of the degradation halo divided by the mean diameter of the microbial colony. Of the total of 39 microbial isolates, bacteria and yeasts, 61.53% were obtained in percentage, for lipolytic activity, with a maximum EI between 2.0 and 6.98; For amylolytic activity, 64.10% with maximum EI between 2.0 and 2.5; Enzymatic activity for cellulase in 35.89% of the isolates, with EI between 2.0 and 3.5; And finally, protease activity was observed in 46.15% of the isolates, with a maximum IE between 2.0 and 8.15. The results obtained were very satisfactory with emphasis on the lipases and proteases, encouraging future analyzes aiming their use in industrial processes.